Our Story


Zen Master Bernie Tetsugen Glassman (1939-2018), while then sensei at Zen Center of Los Angeles, moved to the Bronx, New York City in December 1979.  There, he was set on exploring the merging of spiritual training and social action, and in 1980 he incorporated the Zen Community of New York. A departure from the formal Zen training and teaching he himself had received and given until now, he went on to found Greyston Bakery as “…A place of inclusion and opportunity. Bernie recognized that people in the community of Bronx and, later, Southwest Yonkers needed jobs, and so opened his doors to provide employment, no questions asked…Employing individuals regardless of education, work history, or social barriers such as language skills, homelessness or incarceration, and offering the supportive services the community needs to thrive” (from Greyston Bakery’s Website).  In 2017, Greyston celebrated 35 years of social innovation, and is being studied by major universities and companies around the world.  Bernie has since been recognized with many awards for his groundbreaking work with Greyston

1994 - 2000:
The Beginning

On Bernie’s 55th birthday in January 1994, he did a retreat in Washington D.C., contemplating the question of what to do to serve those rejected by society, those in poverty and those with AIDS. Upon returning home, he discussed with his wife, Sensei Sandra Jishu Holmes, his vision of a container for people wanting to do spiritually-based social engagement.  They decided on developing a religious order, the Zen Peacemaker Order, to respond to his questioning:

“How do we bring our Zen into our life? But Zen is life. What is there to bring? And into what? The point is to see life as the practice field. Every aspect of our life has to become practice. What forms can we create in modern society that will be conducive to seeing the oneness of life? What are the forms that will make it easier to experience interconnectedness?”

The Three Tenets

The Zen Peacemaker Order was to be based on Three Tenets: Not-knowing, Bearing Witness and Loving Actions; the Peacemaker Precepts, based on the Zen Buddhist precepts, were articulated by the Founding Teachers of the ZPO: Grover Genro Gauntt, Bernie Glassman, Joan Jiko Halifax, Sandra Jishu Holmes, Eve Myonen Marko, Wendy Egyoku Nakao and Pat Enkyo O’Hara. The Zen Peacemakers were intent on developing practices and skillful means to help people actualize these three tenets. They practiced meditation in an abandoned school site with stones forming a zendo, and developed rules and procedures for the ZPO.


In December 1995, Bernie and Eve Myonen Marko attended a large inter-faith conference at the former death camp Auschwitz-Birkenau in Poland, organized by renowned Buddhist activist and peacebuilder Dr. Paula Green and the Nipponzan Myohoji Zen community. Upon entering the camp, Bernie tells of feeling overwhelmed by millions of souls wanting to be remembered, and decided to do a retreat there. Eve agreed and offered to help form the retreat. Together with Jishu and Sensei Andrzej Krawjewski, they decided that the retreat should not just be about the Holocaust but about the broader issue of the “Other;” they invited many voices to participate, to plunge into that which the rational mind can’t fathom, to help people let go of their attachments to their ideas or concepts and experience things as they are. The Auschwitz-Birkenau Bearing Witness Retreat has since become one of the most important events offered by the Zen Peacemakers.


In 1996, Sandra Jishu Holmes introduced the Way of Council to many of the ZPO teachers.  The method had been developed by Roshi Joan Jiko Halifax and the Ojai Foundation, and was based on practices performed by the Iroquois Native American nation. Afterward, the Way of Council was made an integral part of the Zen Peacemakers.

Acknowledging that many Zen Groups work on a vertical organization model Zen Peacemakers developed another skillful means: the Zen Peacemaker Circles. Modeled on Indra’s Net, these were conceived as a horizontally-managed organization of interlocking circles, the aim of which was to realize and actualize the oneness and interdependence of life, where individuals gather together for study, mutual support and social action. Each local circle determines its vision and mission and its general way of functioning.

In March 1997, the staff of the ZPO moved to Santa Fe where they bought a property next to the Upaya Zen Center. Within a week of arriving there, Sandra Jishu Holmes passed away. The work on the Peacemaker Villages, which she championed, ended. In 1998, the Zen Peacemakers staff moved to Santa Barbara. From there they continued to support the Zen Peacemakers efforts worldwide.

International Peacemaking​

Bernie shifted his attention to lay-based social action inspired by his insights and the Three-Tenets, and In 1999 installed Wendy Egyoku Nakao as the Abbot of the Zen Center of Los Angeles. He then disrobed as a Zen Priest, a role he considered to be based on maintaining a Zen Buddhist temple.

In December 2000, Eve Myonen Marko and Bernie Glassman married in Santa Barbara, California. They began concentrating on international work in areas of conflict, assisting in various areas of social engagement and on developing the ZPO.  They held the first gathering of ZPO members in 2001 at the Greyston Foundation site in Yonkers, NY.

In 2002 a group gathered in Europe to study together and to develop the European ZPO. This group was referred to as the Founding ZPO Teachers of Europe and consisted of Malgosia Braunek (Poland), Frank De Waele (Belgium), Michel DuBois (France), Amy Hollowell (France), Andrzej Krajewski (Poland), Roberto Mander (Italy), Catherine Pagès (France), Paul Shoju Schwerdt (Germany), Barbara Salaam Wegmüller (Switzerland) and Roland Yakushi Wegmüller (Switzerland). Heinz-Jürgen Metzger (Germany) joined this group shortly after.

Ceaseless Practice​


In 2003 the Zen Peacemaker staff moved to Montague, Massachusetts USA with the intention of building a home-base for the Zen Peacemakers, a Maezumi Institute and the multi-faith House of One People (HOOP). Lex Hixon and Bernie Glassman had formed the idea of a House of One People many years before, to be the home of the multi-faith actions and dharma-holders of the Zen Peacemakers. In 2010 Zen Peacemakers sponsored a large symposium of western socially-engaged Buddhists.  Over 300 people attended and 70 major Zen and other spiritual teachers presented their works and thoughts. The farm became the training ground for the Zen Houses seminar. Financial challenges eventually led to the selling of the farm.


Bernie returned to spending one day per month at Greyston in Yonkers, helping to develop its spiritual component, lead workshops at various Zen Peacemaker Affiliate Centers and volunteer service at conflict areas around the Globe. He was still intent on giving life to his vision of the Zen Peacemakers.


In January 2016, Bernie experienced a severe stroke, and concentrating on his recovery, entrusted his vision to the new international board and executive staff.  Zen Peacemakers International was established to continue this dynamic evolution of spiritual practice, bearing witness and social action, and make transition from a founder-based organization, to a vision-based one. This is our story.

Note on archival photographs: Many of the pictures on this page and throughout our website were taken by photographer and Zen Peacemaker Peter Cunningham, a successor of Bernie Glassman. ZPI is grateful for Peter’s ongoing contribution to capturing and documenting our story and legacy for over thirty years.”

Zen Peacemakers International Journal